What is a DOI?
"A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet." -American Psychological Association (APA)
Where can you find a DOI?
From the Purdue OWL, see how to cite the DOI.
Cited references are the articles, books or other materials listed in a bibliography or as works cited in a particular publication. Because citation databases index each reference, it is possible to search these cited references. One can follow a particular cited reference, or cited author, forward in time to find more current articles that have also cited that author or work.
Go to A-Z Database List, select Indexed from the All Database Types dropdown, see example .
(Refereed, Peer-Reviewed) Journal Articles
(Popular) Journal Articles
Scholarly articles are "peer-reviewed" by other experts in the field. Are also sometimes called "refereed articles."
|Non-scholarly articles are meant to inform or entertain readers rather than provide in-depth analysis.|
|Content||Content of articles usually reports on original research or experimentation.||Content of articles often reports on other research or events rather than presenting original research.|
|Bibliography||Articles usually list references in footnotes or endnotes.||Articles are seldom footnoted and the source of information is seldom given.|
|Illustrations||Illustrations, if any, are usually graphs and charts that support the subject content.||Often are illustrated with glossy or color photographs.|
|Author(s)||Articles are written by experts in the field.||Authors are usually on the staff of the magazine or are freelance writers. Author's name is often not supplied|
|Length/Depth||Articles are generally long and contain in-depth coverage of the topic.||Articles are often short and intended to provide an overview of a topic rather than an in-depth analysis.|
|Advertising||Contain few if any advertisements.||Usually contain many advertisements.|
|Publisher||Frequently, articles are published by a scholarly professional organization (e.g. American Chemical Society, American Psychological Association).||Publishers are marketing to the general public and usually make their publications available in stores and newsstands.|
|Language||Authors write in the language of their discipline. Readers are assumed to have some knowledge of the field.||Articles are directed towards the general public and written in non-technical language.|
Access tools help locate primary and secondary sources. Some types of access tools are:
|Subject Guides||Online Catalogs|
|Subject Directories||Search Engines|
There are three types of sources used in research: Primary, Secondary and Access Tools.
A primary source is a firsthand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. Primary sources are written or created during the time period being studied, or by a person directly involved in the event. Primary sources offer an inside view of a particular event or time period. Some types of primary sources are:
|Original Documents||Creative Works||Artifacts|
|Meeting Minutes||Visual Art||Clothing|
|Research Data||Performing Arts||Furniture|
A Secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. Secondary sources are one step removed from the primary sources. Some types of secondary sources are: