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AMA Style Guide

This guide is intended to introduce you to the basics of citation formatting as outlined in the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style

Special Digital Citations

Online comments

Comment Without Title

Author AA. Re: Title of article: subtitle. Type of comment. Approved Journal Abbreviation. Month Day, Year (of comment). Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Cooke PA. Re: Primary care management of patients after weight loss surgery. Rapid Response. BMJ. March 15, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2019. https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i945/rr-1

Comment With Title

Author AA. Title of comment: subtitle. Approved Journal Abbreviation. Month Day, Year (of comment). Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Donzelli A. A reform of rewarding systems to fight against disease mongering. PLoS Med. March 31, 2009. Accessed February 25, 2016. http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/comment?id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F2e7ecf53-c1f5-44b4-bb9c-5fb71d702320

Data Repository, Blog, or Website Comment

Author AA. Re: Title of post. Comment online. Title of Repository, Blog, or Website. Month Day, Year (of comment). Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Curry S. Re: How to manipulate a citation histogram. Comment online. Scholarly Kitchen blog. August 8, 2016. Accessed August 15, 2016. https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2016/08/08/how-to-manipulate-a-citation-histogram/#comment-64042
Online news publications

Note: no period after URL.

Online newspaper article

Author AA. Article title. Newspaper. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Ubelacker S. CAMH to “wind down” controversial gender identity clinic services. Globe and Mail. December 15, 2015. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/camh-to-wind-down-controversial-gender-identity-clinic-services/article27766580
  2. Guber S. When music is the best medicine. New York Times. September 26, 2019. Accessed September 30, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/26/well/live/music-therapy-cancer.html
  3. Tevlin J. Minneapolis street doctor dispenses care with a dose of dignity. Minneapolis Star Tribune. January 23, 2016. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.startribune.com/minneapolis-street-doctor-dispenses-care-with-a-dose-of-dignity/366313741/

Blog post

Author AA. Post title. Blog Name blog. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Narula SK. WHO has only declared three public health emergencies in its history – Zika virus just became the fourth. Quartz blog. February 1, 2016. Accessed August 16, 2016. http://qz.com/607331

News release

Title. News release. Publication. Publisher; Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Device reduces risk of brain injury after heart valve replacement. News release. JAMA For the Media.  August 4, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016. https://media.jamanetwork.com/news-item/device-reduces-risk-of-brain-injury-after-heart-valve-replacement/
  2. Antidepressant may improve cognitive symptoms in people with HIV. News release. Johns Hopkins Medicine; February 25, 2016. Accessed March 18, 2016. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/antidepressant_may_improve_cognitive_symptoms_in_people_with_hiv
Digital government agency reports

Digital content authored by a government agency

Group Author. Title. Government Agency; Year. Publication information. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Questions and Answers About Sprains and Strains. National Institutes of Health; 2015. NIH publication 15-5328. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sprains_Strains/default.asp

Digital non-US government publication

Group Author. Title. Government Agency; Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Women on the Run: First-Hand Accounts of Refugees Fleeing El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. UNHCR: UN Refugee Agency; 2015. Accessed August 16, 2016. http://www.unhcr.org/5630f24c6.pdf
Digital publication as part of a series
Group Author. Title. Publisher; Year. Series. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. US Department of Commerce. Population Division: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance in the United States, 2012. US Bureau of the Census; 2012. Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Accessed January 28, 2016. https://www.census.gov/data/datasets/time-series/demo/cps/cps-asec.2012.html
Theses and dissertations
Author AA. TItle. Dissertation. University; Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Ghanbari S. Integration of the Arts in STEM: A Collective Case Study of Two Interdisciplinary University Programs. Dissertation. University of California; 2014. Accessed October 14, 2016. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/9wp9x8sj
Conference & meeting proceedings online, webinars, and other presentations

Conference paper

Author AA, Author BB. Title. Paper presented at: Conference Name; Month Days, Year; Location. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Morales M, Zhou X. Health practices of immigrant women: indigenous knowledge in an urban environment. Paper presented at: 78th Association for Information Sciences and Technology Annual Meeting; November 6-10, 2015; St Louis, MO. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/JVRDN6YZVMCNCVEGI7PJ?target=10.1002/pra2.2015.145052010038

Conference session with digital recording

Author AA, Author BB. Session title at: Conference; Month Day, Year; Location.  Accessed Month Day, Year. URL. Videocast available at: URL
  1. Botkin J, Menikoff J. Opening remarks presented at: Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections Meeting; December 4, 2015; Rockville, MD. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/sachrp-committee/meetings/2015-december-3-4/index.html. Videocast available at: https://videocast.nih.gov/
  2. Labor, Health and Human Services Subcommittee Hearing. National Institutes of Health: Investing in a Healthier Future. October 7, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016. Videocast available at: http://www.appropriations.senate.gov/hearings/labor-hhs-subcommittee-hearing-national-institutes-of-health-investing-in-a-healthier-future

Transcript from a teleconference

Author AA, Author BB. Session name: Conference. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. Transcript available at: URL
  1. Volkow N, Botticelli M, Johnston LD, Miech RA. Monitoring the Future: Teleconference 2015. December 16, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016. Transcript available at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/podcasts/2015/12/monitoring-future-teleconference-2015#content-area

Webinar

Author AA, Author BB. Session name. Webinar information. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL
  1. Gunn E, Kendall-Taylor J, Vandenburg B. Taking author instructions to the next level. Council of Science Editors webinar. September 10, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://www.councilscienceeditors.org/resource-library/archive/past-webinars/2015-webinar-3-taking-author-instructions-to-the-next-level/

Article from a meeting published in a journal with other types of articles

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Approved journal abbreviation. Year;Volume(issue):page. Selected articles from Conference. doi:10.xxxx/xxx
  1. Huang G-M, Huang K-Y, Lee T-Y, Tzu-Ya Weng J. An interpretable rule-based diagnostic classification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes patients. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16(suppl 1):S5. Selected articles from the Thirteenth Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Conference (APBC 2015). doi:10.1186/1471-2015-16-S1-S5

Special Print Citations

Print abstracts from another source

References to abstracts should only be used when the original article isn’t available.

Abstract of an article republished from another journal.

Author AA, Author BB. Title of article: subtitle. Approved Journal Abbreviation. Year:volume(issue):pages. Abstract republished in: Approved Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):page.
  1. Yang EL, Macy TM, Wang KH, et al. Economic and demographic characteristics of cerumen extraction claims to Medicare. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;142(2):157-161. Abstract republished in: JAMA. 2016;315(19):2128.

Abstract of an online-only article published in the print version of a journal

Author AA, Author BB. Title of the article: subtitle. Approved Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):e-locator. Abstract republished in: Approved Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):page.
  1. Kelly MS, Benjamin DK, Puopolo KM, et al. Potential cytomegalovirus infection and the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(12):e153785. Abstract republished in: JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(12):1095.

Translated abstract with full-text article in a different language

Author AA, Author BB. Title of article: subtitle. Abstract in Language. Approved Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pages.
  1. Siqueira MM, Araujo CA, Roza BA, Schirmer J. Indicadores de eficiência no processo de doação e transplante de órgãos: revisão sistemática da literatura. Abstract in English. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2016;40(2):90-97.

Abstract of a paper published in the society proceedings of a journal

Author AA, Author BB. Title of the article: subtitle. Approved Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):page. Society Name abstract id.
  1. Richardson J, Hendrickse C, Gao-Smith F, Thickett D. Characterisation of systemic neutrophil function in patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection. Eur Surg Res. 2015;55(suppl 1):4. European Society for Surgical Research abstract OP-4.
News publications

Newspaper article with page numbers for each section

Author AA. Article title. Newspaper. Month Day, Year:page.
  1. Schencker L. Peanut allergy relief? Chicago Tribune. September 22, 2019:C1.
  2. Liptak A. Yale finds error in legal stylebook: contrary to claim, Harvard didn’t create it. New York Times. December 8, 2015:A24.

News release

Title. News release. Publisher; Month Day, Year.
  1. Dying in pursuit of the news. News release. Associated Press; March 30, 2015
Government agency reports

Publication without authors published by a government agency

Title. Government Agency; Year.
  1. Health, United States, 2014: With Special Feature on Adults Aged 55-64. National Center for Health Statistics; 2015.

Book with authors published by a government agency

Author AA, Author BB. Book Title. Volume. Government Agency; Year.
  1. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE, Miech RA. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2014: College Students and Adults Ages 19-55. Vol 2. National Institute on Drug Abuse, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2014.

Chapter of government agency publication

Author AA. Chapter title. In: Book. Government Agency;Year:pages.
  1. Sondik EJ. Foreword. In: Healthy People 2010: Final Review. National Center for Health Statistics; 2012:iii.

Government report with an author

Author AA. Report Name. Government Agency; Year.
  1. Grall T. Census 2010 Report No. P60-255: Custodial Mothers and Fathers and Their Child Support: 2013. US Census Bureau; 2016.

Non-US government publication: if the publisher is a global agency do not include "Government of" information.

Government of Country. Group Author. Title. Government Agency; Year.
  1. Government of Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Year Book of Nepal – 2013. Central Bureau of Statistics; 2013.
  2. World Health Organization. World Health Report 2013: Research for Universal Health Coverage. World Health Organization, 2013.
Serial publications

One in a series of reports.

Group Author. Report Name. Publisher; Year. Series Report Number.
  1. Ministry of Health. National AIDS Control Programme. Ministry of Health, United Republic of Tanzania; 2013. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report 23.

Serial publication with a unique publication number

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title. Publisher; Year. Publication number.

  1. Chinnadurai S, Snyder K, Sathe NA, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Infantile Hemangioma: Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 168. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2016. AHRQ publication 16-EHC002-EF.
Theses and dissertations

Thesis

Author AA. TItle. Degree thesis. University; Year.
  1. Neel ST. A Cost-Minimization and Policy Analysis Comparing Immediate Sequential Cataract Surgery and Delayed Sequential Cataract Survey from Payer, Patient, Physician, and Surgical Facility Perspectives in the United States. Master’s thesis. London School of Economics and Political Science; 2013.

Dissertation

Author AA. Title. Dissertation. University; Year
  1. Maiti N. Association Between Bullying Behaviors, Health Characteristics, and Injuries Among Adolescents in the United States. Dissertation. Palo Alto University; 2010.
Patents
Inventor AA, Inventor BB, Inventor CC, et al, inventors; Company, assignee. Title. US patent number. Month Day, Year.
  1. Hu D, Fong K, Pinto M, et al, inventors; Spiracur Inc, assignee. Reduced pressure therapy of the sacral region. US patent 8,361,043. January 29, 2013.

Patent application

Inventor AA, inventor; Company, assignee. Title. US patent application number. Month Day, Year.
  1. Gustafsson J, inventor; Cochlear Ltd, assignee. Bone conduction magnetic retention system. US patent application 20,160,037,273. February 5, 2016.

European Patent

Inventor AA, Inventor BB, inventors; Company, assignee. Title. European patent number. Month Day, Year.
  1. Menke A, Binder EB, Holsboer F, inventors; Max Planck Gesellschaft, assignee. Means and methods for diagnosing predisposition for treatment of emergent suicidal ideation. European patent EP2166112 (B1). May 6, 2013.
Conference & meeting proceedings and presentations

Paper presentation

Author AA. Title. Paper presented at: Conference; Month Day, Year; Location.
  1. Pasternak B. Carvedilol vs metoprolol succinate and risk of mortality in patients with heart failure: national cohort study. Paper presented at: European Society of Cardiology Congress; August 31, 2014; Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract presentation with session number

Author AA, Author BB. Title. Abstract presented at: Conference Name; Month Day, Year; Location. Session number.
  1. Minocchieri S, Berry CA, Pillow J. Nebulized surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress in the first hours of life: the CureNeb study. Abstract presented at: Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Society; May 6, 2013; Washington, DC. Session 3500.

Poster presentation

Author AA, Author BB. Title. Poster presented at: Conference; Month Days, Year; Location.
  1. Nevidomskyte D, Meissner MH, Tran N, Murray S, Farrokhi E. Influence of gender on abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the community. Poster presented at: Vascular Annual Meeting; June 5-7, 2014; Boston, MA.

Article from a meeting published in a journal issue with other articles from meetings

Author AA. Article title. In: Conference Name. Publisher; Year:pages.
  1. Resnick ML. The effect of affect: decision making in the emotional context of health care. In: Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care: Bridging the Gap. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; 2012:39-44.
Classical references

Classic script, no known date

Author AA. Title. Location.
  1. Shakespeare W. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Act 2, scene 3, line 24.

Classic poem, no known date

Author AA. Title. Location.
  1. Donne J. Second Anniversary. Verse 243.

Classic literature

Author AA. Title. Location.
  1. Aristotle. Metaphysics. 3. 2.966b 5-8.