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ASA Style Guide

Referencing a Book

Print Book Reference Format

LastName, FirstName. Year. Title. City of Publication: Publisher.

Bender, Wolfgang. 1991. Sweet Mother. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

2 Authors

Edin, Kathryn, and Maria Kefalas. 2005. Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage. Berkley: University of California Press.

3 to 10 Authors

Edelman, Peter, Harry J. Holzer, and Paul Offner. 2006. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. 
*Note: For more than 10 authors, list the first 7 author names followed by et al.

eBook Reference Format

LastName, FirstName, and FirstName LastName. Year. Title. City of Publication: Publisher. URL.

MacDonald, Ian Thomas. 2017. Unions and the City: Negotiating Urban Change. Ithica: ILR Press. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=1529584&site=ehost-live. 

Referencing a Journal Article

Print Journal Article Reference Format

LastName, FirstName, FirstName LastName, and FirstName LastName. Year. "Title of Article." Name of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number):page numbers. 

Colen, Cynthia G. 2011. "Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Using Life Course Perspectives: Toward a Constructive Criticism." Du Bois Review 8(1):79-94. 

Electronic Journal Article Reference Format

Journal Article with URL

LastName, FirstName, FirstName LastName, and FirstName LastName. Year. "Title of Article." Name of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number):page numbers. URL.

Demirkol, Ismail Cenk, and Mahesh K. Nalla. 2019. “How Does Police Culture Shape Officers’ Support for Community Policing?” Policing & Society 29(6):692-705. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=137507954&site=ehost-live.

Journal Article with DOI

LastName, FirstName, FirstName LastName, and FirstName LastName. Year. "Title of Article." Name of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number):page numbers. doi: xxxx.

Demirkol, Ismail Cenk, and Mahesh K. Nalla. 2019. “How Does Police Culture Shape Officers’ Support for Community Policing?” Policing & Society 29(6):692-705. doi: 10.1080/10439463.2017.1410149.

Referencing Newspaper & Magazine Articles

Print Newspaper/Magazine Format

LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Article." Newspaper/Magazine Title, Month Day, page Numbers. 

Anderson, Elijah. 1994. "The Code of the Streets." Atlantic Monthly, May, 81-94.

Electronic Newspaper/Magazine Format

LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Article." Newspaper/Magazine Title, Month Day, page Numbers. URL.

Friedman, Thomas L. 2017. "Climate Shifts Aren't Limited to the Weather." Opinion, New York Times, April 2. https://www.newyorktimes.com/2017/08/02/opinion/climate-change.html. 

Referencing a Website

Website Format - No Author

Company/Institute/Association Name. Year. "Page Title." URL.

American Anthropological Association. 1998. "AAA Statement on Race." https://www.americananthro.org/ConnectWithAAA/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=2583

Blog Post

LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Article." Blog Title. Month Day. URL. 

Carrigan, Mark. 2014. “Qualitative Self-tracking and the Qualified Self.” The Sociological Imagination Blog. July 31. http://sociologicalimagination.org/archives/15674. 

 

Other Formats

DVD Format

Judge, Mike. 1999. Office Space. Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth Century Fox. DVD.​

Streaming Video

American Sociological Association. 2019. "Children of the Storm." Produced by the American Sociological Association, December 5. Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8_e4-idfg0.

Social Media 

If a social media post is cited only once in the text, use a footnote.

Text: The American Sociological Association mentioned the meeting directly on its Facebook page.1

Footnote: 1. American Sociological Association's Facebook page, accessed June 6, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/AmericanSociologicalAssociation/posts/10154176262000165.

If a social media post is frequently cited, it may be included in the reference list. Include both the real and screen name, if possible. In the text, cite the name under which the entry is listed in the reference list (usually the real name).

American Sociological Association (@ASAnews). 2018. "Historic increases in income inequality have coincided with widening class divides in parental investments of money and time in children. See http://www.asanet.org/press-center/press-release/income-inequality-changing-how-parents-invest-their-kids-widening-class-divide-us." Twitter, July 9, 12:50 p.m. https://twitter.com/ASAnews/status/1016409400259563521.

Podcasts

Author. Year. "Title of Podcast." City of publication: Publisher. Name of company Podcast. Retrieved date (URL).

Hout, Michael. 2009. "Higher Education Today." Washington DC: American Sociological Association. Contexts Podcast. Retrieved June 22, 2015 (http://contexts.or/podcast /2009/06/07/higher-eduction-today/).

 

 

**For other formats such as, Maps, Reports/Bulletins, and more, consult the ASA Style Guide or Purdue Owl.